What is the CSMR! CA Bear The California State Military Reserve is the official state defense force, and enables the Golden State to do more. It is a part of the California Military Department, along with the state’s National Guard and Air National Guard. Its mission is to augment the National Guard in a variety of support roles, and to specialize in homeland defense and emergency management missions. READ MORE ....


Calendar Watch


Part I > Structure

Soldiers who take time to revitalize after a day’s activities may choose several differing methods to condition themselves, refocus and retain endurance. Quite often this formula includes a variety of exercises. Sometimes the choice of exercise may have very negative effects on any human’s thorax, thus preventing any future development and focus.

llustration 1. This view of the mediastinum and anterior thorax. Ribs and sternum are cut, lungs are retracted, pleura and pericardia are dissected away, great vessels and vagus nerve are apparent.

As mentioned, this reading recognizes the thorax as being of particular interest, since this part of everyone’s physiological structure holds both the heart and lungs within a protective bone and pleura housing. 

llustration 2. The human skeleton, back view, illustrates the rib cage and spinal region.
 The ribs join to the rear of the human body by way of the vertebral column which contains 33 vertebrae. These vertebrae enclose the spinal canal that in turn secures the spinal cord. From stem to stern, it produces the necessary route for bundled nerve cells to send and receive messages from the brain.

From the seat of the medulla oblongata, at the base of the brain, nerve tissue form pathways along this central nervous system (CNS). The CNS consist of tissues, neurons and neuroglia, that conduct and transmit the flow of impulses. Cells maintain the molecule,Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), that heaps and provides the high-energy necessary for human beings to develop and function physiologically.

Within the cervical and thoracic region, pia matter contains connective tissue of denticulate ligaments (DLs), formed from collagen fibers, that assist in the stability of the spinal. More importantly, once these fibers emerge from the vertebral column,these structures form the peripheral nervous system (PNS), allowing the interior regions of the human body and the extremities to connect, distinguishing neurotransmitters, through pathways, to the CNS.

In the same way, as the interior of the spinal column has a protective layer of cells, so do the lungs, protected by a pleura of fluid shielding membranes. The lungs extend vertically from the collarbone to the upper part of the diaphragm. Each lung subdivides into different attributes, having two lobes on the left side of the human body and three lobes on the right side of human body. In the middle of this organ rests the heart. In the same way, it receives lateral protection from the ribs and the lungs.

Respiration video

llustration 3. The human skeleton, frontal view, illustrates the thoracic region: sacrum, ribs and lower spinal column.

For that important reason, the medulla oblongata houses two centers that regulate breathing, the inspiratory (IC) and the expiratory centers (EC). As humans breath, the initiation of the respiratory system starts in the IC: impulses move along the spinal cord and distribute information to receptive motor fibers. These motor fibers live in five segmental groups adjacent to the vertebral column or spine, and list as the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral and coccygeal nerves (CTLSC), or pairs of 8-12-5-5-1.

Humans have a size 12 in ribs, paired to make-up a known quantity of 24 ribs. The upper mid-point of the frontal thorax presents the sternum, a flat bone visualizing the shape of a crutch. The first seven pair of ribs connect to the sternum, not with bone but with costal cartilage. Without this smooth, elastic, connective tissue, human ribs could not adjust to the contracting movement of the diaphragm while breathing during the absorption of oxygen and removal of carbon dioxide. 

llustration 4. The thorax, shaped as a bee-hive with an inverted “V” front flat, connected by the rib cage attached to cartilage and to the sternum (anterior) and to the thoracic spine (posterior).

When exercising, Soldiers need to understand that the respiratory system combines aerobic and anaerobic respiration. When the respiratory system completes a cycle, humans receive energy, via the reaction of glucose molecules with oxygen molecules, or other organic substances (aerobic). Whenever there exists a delay in receiving this exchange, lactic acid builds-up in muscle tissue, resulting in a smaller measurement of energy (anaerobic).

When exercising, deep breathing will reduce this energy debt and the process will oxidize the lactic acid. Remember, for any physiological activity, humans require large amounts of energy for metabolic activities: excretion, growth, movement, nutrition, reproduction, respiration and sensitivity.

In either case, for Soldiers who have not had a consistent regime of exercise due to injuries, increased weight gain, medical restrictions or no detectable cause, there exists a high correlation between thoracic activity and sensitivity to directed physical exercise and therapy. This situation will result in what can compare to a mechanism-based inhibition, extending the person’s poor prognosis until the past behaviour diminishes via staff direction.

Next Month > Exercise regimes to initiate safe, lasting fitness and strengthening …

Illustration 1: Hoffman, C.W. (2015, September 9) Visual Communications Scientific [Blog Post]. Retrieved from http://cwhoffmanvisualcommunications.com/about/

Illustrations 2 & 3: Williams, Jesse Feiring, Geschickter, Charles Freeman, Frohse, Franz, illus; Brödel, Max, joint illus; Schlossberg, Leon, joint illus; Barnes & Noble. Atlas of Human Anatomy. New York: Barnes & Noble, Inc., 1942.

Illustration 4: Wells, Katherine F. Kinesiology: The Anatomic and Mechanical Fundamentals of Human Motion Illustrated. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 1955.

Video: Human Respiration. Video Revision World Networks Limited. Willow Crest, Rissington Road, Bourton on the Water, GL54 2DZ

Graphic: Bellemare F, Jeanneret A, Couture J. Epub 2003 May 28. Sex differences in thoracic dimensions and configuration. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003 168(3):305-12. Retrieved from


Maj. (CA) R. Alexander 

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